Science and culture in the 18th century

 

Important scientific and cultiraladvances took place.For example , many scientific institutions , such as museums and botanical gardens , were created.

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Literature in the Golden Age

16 th century:Saint Teresa and Saint John of the  Cross wrote about mystical and spiritual topics.

17 th century:Lots of artists wrote novels , poetry and plays.

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Art in the Golden Age

From around 1550 to 17oo a large quentity of excepcional artistic and literary works were produced.It was called the Golden Age.

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Early Modern society

Early Modern society can be classified into two groups : the privileged class and the non-privileged class.

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The reforms of the 18th century

In the 18th century , the monarchs introduced many reforms.

  • Secretaries of state replaced the king’s favourites.
  • The secretaries of state improved transport, including the construction of roads and canals.
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The first Bourbons in Spain

The Bourbons established an absolute monarchy: laws did not limit the monarch’s power.Philip 5 centralised all power in the monarch with the New Regime Decree.

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The War of Succession

Charles 2 died in 1700 with no children.Two claimants to the Spanish throne appeared:one German and the other French.

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The 17th century

Wars during the 16th century were long and very expensive.As a result , in the 17th century , the Spanish Empire was weak , and began to break up.During the 17th century , Philip 3 , Philip 4 and Charles 2 chose ministers to help them govern.

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The empire of Philip 2:

Philip 2 succeeded to the throne in 1556.He ruled a huge empire made up of:

  • territories on the peninsula
  • parts of southern Italy,the Netherlands, territories in America and Asia.

During his reign,prices in Spain increased,and the amount of gold and silver sent from America decreased.As result,Spanish people became poorer.In 1557,Philip 2 defeated France.In 1571,he won the Battle of Lepanto against the Turks.In 1566,the Netherlands rebelled against Spanish rule.

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The empire of Charles 1:

In 1516 , Charles 1 became king of Spain.He ruled over a great empire:

  • the territories of the Catholic Monarch, the Netherlands and other lands in central Europe.

These territories manteined their own laws and institutions,but Charles 1 was their king.

Charles 1 had serious problems in Spain and abroad:

  • Revolts in Spain:The main cities of Castile demanded more participation in the goverment.
  • War against France to archieve hegemony in Europe.
  • War against the Turks to control the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Battles against Lutherans in central Europe.
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